FND 510: Social Justice Perspectives on the
History and Philosophy of American Education

Fall 2012, Chicago, Mondays 6 - 8:50 pm
(2+1 Semester Hours)

Click here to jump to schedule of assignments.


Craig A. Cunningham, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Educational Foundations, Technology, and Inquiry
craig.cunningham@nl.edu (best way to contact me)
cell: 773-505-1133 (please use for urgent matters only; leave a message if I don't answer)
Office hours: by appointment only

Required texts

tozer6theditionSchool and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives by Steven E Tozer, Guy Senese, Paul C Violas, Steven Tozer. Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages; 6th edition (2009).

For additional resources, visit the Information Center associated with this text, at http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073378372/student_view0/index.html.

Note: If you have the 5th edition, that is acceptable; however, the chapter numbers are somewhat different. Please see this comparison chart (or this side-by-side display of the tables of contents) when selecting which chapters to read each week.

Additional readings and materials are available via Blackboard.

Catalog description

This course critically examines the social, cultural, political, and economic forces, and the philosophies of education that have influenced policy, laws, school structure, and practices throughout the history of American education. Issues addressed include ability and disability, race, ethnicity, gender, and class. Students lay the foundation for the development of a personal philosophy of education and reflectively examine issues of education from legal and social justice perspectives. This course includes a field project requiring at least 15 hours of work outside of class.

Academic Honesty

With respect to the academic honesty of students, it is expected that all material submitted as part of any class exercise, in or out of class, is the actual work of the student whose name appears on the material or is properly documented otherwise. The concept of academic honesty includes plagiarism as well as receiving and/or giving improper assistance and other forms of cheating on coursework. Students found to have engaged in academic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary action and may be dismissed from the University.

Faculty has the right to analyze and evaluate students’ course work.  Students may be asked to submit their papers electronically to a third party plagiarism detection service.  Students who are asked to submit their papers and refuse must provide proof for every cited work comprising the cover page and first cited page for each source listed in the bibliography.  When evidence of academic dishonesty is discovered, an established procedure of resolution will be activated to bring the matter to closure.  See Policy on Academic Honesty in the University Catalog and Student Guidebook (online).

For resources on how to cite properly and avoid plagiarism, go to NLU’s Center for Academic Development (http://www.nl.edu/centers/cad/) and the NLU Library (http://www.nl.edu/library/).

Course goals and expected student learning outcomes:

1. To gain a perspective on educational policies and school practices by examining key turning points in American educational history including the history of education for students of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds and students with disabilities. (NCE Goals for Teaching 4; NCE Performance Expectations: Understands contextual nature of learning) ISBE: 5B, 7C

2. To critically reflect on the basic assumptions embedded in different educational philosophies and practices and the changing views on the nature of knowledge, learning, and teaching. (NCE Goals for Teaching 4; NCE Performance Expectations: Help students construct their own knowledge) ISBE: 6B

3. To reflect on the themes of equity, social justice, and democracy and critically examine how people differently situated in the social structure have perceived and shaped schools over time. (NCE Performance Expectations: Engage in inquiry) ISBE: 3F

4. To become familiar with the evolution, meaning, and implications of laws, legislation and litigation including legal decisions made that affect the education of students from diverse cultures, women, and children with special needs. (NCE Performance Expectations: Assess, reflects on, and critiques their own knowledge, practice, school and society) ISBE 3A, 5F, 8F, 11D

5. To probe the relationships between the ideas of major educational thinkers and the evolution of educational institutions including institutional structures that correspond to the social and political construction of categories, such as race, gender, ethnicity, and ableism. (NCE Performance Expectations: Understand the contextual nature of learning) ISBE 3F

6. To examine the process of change and the political, economic and ideological underpinnings of reform in American schools over time and envision a means for introducing innovations and constructive change.

(NCE Performance Expectations: Help students construct their own knowledge) ISBE 9A, 11B

7. To articulate one's own educational beliefs and practices in relation to theoretical approaches, and conceptualize a personal vision of education as reflective moral action. (NCE Performance Expectations: Integrate theory and practice) ISBE 17A

8. To embrace the educators' roles as advocates for equity and social justice in a culturally and ability diverse educational system. (NCE Performance Expectations: Assesses, reflects on, and critiques their own knowledge, practice, school and society) ISBE 9D, 9G, 11E

Major Topics

The following are examples of topics that might be highlighted:

I. Introduction: Schooling and social reproduction: The struggle for equality (Goals 1, 3, 4, 5, 6)

A. Schools and the creation of a democratic society: The purposes of education

B. Schools and social reproduction: Theory and practice

C. Access to meaningful educational experiences: Social reproduction and the struggle for equality

D. Schooling and the construction of group and individual identity: Political implications.

II. The colonial and revolutionary periods: Cultural domination, citizenship and the creation of the“other.” (Goals 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

A. Early theorists and European influences on American Education (Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel)

B. The Puritan vision: Religion and authority in colonial education

C. Benjamin Franklin: Education as practical work and social mobility

D. Thomas Jefferson: Education as political socialization

E. Noah Webster: Education as nationalism and cultural domination

III. The common school crusade: Uniformity through political power (Goals 1, 4, 3, 5, 6, 8)

A. Education as moral reform: The threat of cultural pluralism

B. Horace Mann and “the balance wheel of the social machinery”

C. The ideology of public education and its discontent

D. The origins of laws related to public education with attention to issues of racism, gender, and ableism.

E. The development of co-education and the feminization of teaching

IV. The education of women and minorities: (Goals 3, 4, 8)

A. African Americans and the creation of universal public education

B. Segregated and unequal schools

C. W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington on the purposes of education 

D. The struggle of Native Americans for a culturally appropriate education

E. Women’s contribution to education: Social and political roles in a changing society

V. Era of transition: Cultural pluralism, political power, and democracy (Goals 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8)

A. Immigration and Americanization: The school as preserver of culture

B. Extending the social role of education: Growth of the welfare function of schools

C. The Eugenics movement

D. Jane Addams on cultural pluralism

E. Pedagogical progressives: John Dewey on school and society

F. Women’s teacher organizations and female reformers (Ella Flagg Young)

G. George S. Counts: The school and social reconstruction

VI. The Political economy of the Progressive Era: Meritocracy and the development of scientific 

management (Goals 1, 2, 5, 7)

A. The impact of the business creed: The development of the "factory" model

B. Edward Thorndike’s scientific approach to psychology, the learning process, and curriculum

C. The conception and measurement of intelligence

D. The transformation of public schools: Meritocracy and curricular differentiation

E. Bureaucratic order and special classrooms for disabled students

F. The emergence of a deficit model of disability services

VII. The cold war era: National school reform (Goals 1, 4, 5, 6)

A. The Cold War and national educational policy

B. The National Defense Education Act: Public schools address national security

C. Standardized testing and the classification and selection of students by ability

D. The emergence of special education and related service professions

D. James Conant: The transformation of the high school

E. Curricular Reforms: The structure of the disciplines approach to curriculum planning and the pursuit of educational excellence (BSCS, SAAA, ESS, MACOS). 

VIII. Conflicting goals: The pursuit of equality and the pursuit of excellence (Goals 3, 4, 5, 8)

A. Brown v. Board of Education and its impact on equity and diversity

B. The Civil Right Movements and the schools

C. Johnson's War on Poverty: ESEA, EOA

D. Evolving laws and policies relating to students with disabilities, e.g., PL 94-142, Reauthorization of I.D.E.A.

E. A. Nation at Risk: The politics of public education

F. Accountability, national standards, choice and inequality, e.g.:” No Child Left Behind”

IX. Educational technologies- Possibilities and challenges (Goals 2, 6)

A. Teaching machine

B. Educational films

C. Computers, VDL and the Internet

D. The cultural dimensions of educational computing

X. Conversations about educational philosophy (Goals 2, 6, 7, 8)

A. Ethical considerations in education

B. Resisting domination and the question of justice: Critical theory

C. Making meaning: The production and problematizing of knowledge

D. The ethic of care: Nel Noddings and Jane Roland Martin

E. Alternative approaches and practices on human learning and ability, i.e., Behavioral Disabilities Studies

Special Needs

Please Note:  National-Louis University is committed to ensuring that all of its facilities and programs are accessible to all persons.  If you believe you may qualify for course adaptations or accommodations in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and/or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, it is your responsibility to immediately, but no later than the second week of class to contact the Office of Diversity, Access and Equity (DAE Office) or the instructor.  You may contact the Director of Diversity and Equal Employment at (847) 947-5491 or via e-mail at Erin.Haulotte@nl.edu.  If you have coordinated services with the DAE Office, please provide your letter of accommodation to the instructor.

2 + 1 Format - Fieldwork Component

National-Louis University is committed to educating teachers who have a broad liberal education that will enable them to construct their own knowledge as well as to integrate theory and practice.

This course is designated as "2+1" semester hours, meaning that 2 semester hours are spent in the NLU classroom and 1 semester hour is spent doing a field project relevant to the course content.

The field project required in this course provides students with the opportunity to apply knowledge gained through readings and class discussions to concrete situations. In addition, the field project provides students with opportunities to engage in inquiry, demonstrate their abilities as practitioners/scholars, understand the contextual nature of learning, as well as assess, reflect on, and critique their own knowledge, practice, school and society. These projects have the potential to enhance students’ ability to collaborate with students, in their classes, teachers, administrators, parents, policy makers and the community at large.

Instructors will encourage all students to conceptualize and conduct a field-based project that is consistent with the goals and expectations of their programs, perhaps in consultation with their advisors. The projects will enable students to synthesize and apply what they are learning in class to particular questions and/or situations experienced in schools and/or communities, perhaps in relation to a required practicum. Findings of the field experience will be presented to the class. Students are expected to allocate at least 15 hours to the field project. The 15 hours includes any data collection or research. It does not include preparing your proposal, poster, or project paper.

Projects could include but are not limited to:

See "Explanation of Primary Assignments," below for details on due dates for your proposal, paper, and poster.

Course requirements and grading

Regular class attendance and voluntary participation are expected.   Lack of attendance and class participation, or consistent tardiness will negatively impact your final grade. "Class participation" involves being prepared to discuss and support your interpretation of educational issues, evidenced both by your contribution to class discussions and weekly reflective statements. In response to the course materials, students are expected to engage in critical, reflective, and original discussion.   How do our understandings of the historical educational context impact our understandings and actions within contemporary contexts in response to contemporary dilemmas?   Students should demonstrate a commitment to constructing bridges between the "theory" and "practice" of education.  

Curiosity and self-reflection are encouraged. Successful teaching requires a disposition toward life-long learning and a willingness to question both conventional wisdom and your own capacity to know everything based on your own experience. Therefore, you should strive to suspend judgment about important issues and questions and to continunally ask yourself whether the experience of another person can add important understandings to your own. Also, while to a naive person "theory" is often seen to be less important than "practice," in this class it is important to keep an open mind to the value of theory not only in shaping your beliefs and values but in informing practice.

Timely submission of assignments is advised.   Although it’s certainly understandable that extenuating circumstances do arise, you are expected to request extra time BEFORE the due date of an assignment. Also, understand that turning assignments in late will mean that you will be less likely to get timely feedback from the instructor. If you have turned in an assignment on time, you may resubmit it (after receiving feedback and with suggested revisions) if you wish the assignment to be evaluated again. If you do not request extra time, and do not submit the assignment by the due date, the option of revising and resubmitting is no longer available to you. Assignments that are missing as of the last day of the quarter will receive a zero.

A bit about writing assignments:   At minimum, written work should reflect your status as a graduate student; it should be clear and organized, thoroughly and precisely address the question being asked or concept being explored, be well reasoned and/or evidenced, and demonstrate graduate level writing mechanics.   Written work that does not reflect graduate level writing simply will not receive full credit.   Check out the NLU Writing Center if you feel you could benefit from their help.

Explanation of primary assignments

Weekly Reflections (20%):   Each week, students will submit (to the instructor via email) a one- or two-page substantive reflection on the readings, discussion and classroom activities.   This is an opportunity for you to engage the material, discover what resonates with you, construct what it means to you, and clarify your own thinking, using the text and classroom materials as a foundation. You are also welcome to use your reflection to comment on the conduct of the course, the instructor, and your fellow students. The reflective statements are NOT GRADED, but must meet the standard of "substantive." ("Substantive" can be defined in this context as "having substance and prompting thought; meaty." In other words, they must show evidence that you have actually thought in an original way about something important that is related to the course.) Reflections are due by midnight on Sundays and must be submitted via email to the instructor at craig.cunningham@nl.edu. Attach your reflection to the email in Microsoft Word, PDF, or text format. Your file should be named something like "Yourfirstname_yourlastname_FND510-reflection1.doc." Please include your full name and the date at the top of each reflection.

Philosophy statement (20%): What is your "philosophy of education," "philosophy of teaching," or "philosophy of educational leadership?"   One of the objectives of this course is for you to think critically about your own place in the educational spectrum; for example, what have you experienced, what do you value, how do you conceptualize the notions of teaching, learning, knowledge, and education? How do your experiences and ideas--and what you've learned about the history of education thought in this course--impact how you think of yourself as an educator? Try to be specific, in terms of what you will do as a teacher and how this reflects your experiences and ideas. Please include a discussion of what you think is likely to happen to schooling in the United States in the next 10 to 20 years, why you think so, and how you think you should respond to those changes as an educator.   You will turn in a 6-9 page paper answering these questions and referring to the topics and readings of the course. Paper must contain at least 10 direct references to course materials or discussion. Please number these references sequentially in the paper thus: {1}. This numbering is in addition to citations in proper format to any materials used in writing the paper or directly quoted. A COMPLETE DRAFT of your philosophy statement must be emailed to the instructor by midnight on October 21, 2012 and the final version must be emailed to the instructor by midnight on November 14, 2012. See the sample philosophy statements linked here.

Participation in class discussions (30%): Student perspective is emphasized in this course.   You will be expected to participate appropriately and professionally in discussions.   You will be expected to demonstrate in each discussion that you have read the required readings. Each week, at a minimum, you must make at least two original, substantive, contributions that address the discussion questions provided.

Field Project Paper (20%): By midnight on September 23, you'll submit a one-page proposal for your field project (including the questions(s) to be addressed, how you'll conduct your inquiry, a statement of relevance to this class—referring to the course goals and major topics from the online syllabus; what you hope to gain by doing this project, and what kind of data you will be collecting) to the instructor. Feedback will be given by midnight pm on Setpember 30. You will then turn in a 4-6 page paper (emailed to the instructor by midnight on November 18) that discusses your basic question or issue, what you did, and what you found out.

Fieldwork poster session (10%): On November 12, you will present the "findings" of your fieldwork to the class in a structured poster session. In advance of that class, you will prepare a poster (no more than 2 feet by 3 feet, please) that provides information on your basic question, what you did, and what you found out, along with some conclusions or further questions. The poster must contain sufficient information for someone to be able to understand the relationship between your field project and the topics of the course. The poster must also contain at least TWO images and a graph, chart, or timeline. More information will be provided in class.

Tentative schedule of topics, primary readings, and major assignments

Please check the syllabus regularly in case assignments are changed during the quarter.

Tozer chapter numbers are given for the 6th edition. If you have the 5th edition, please refer to this chart.

September 10 class.

Introduction to the course, instructor, students.

By midnight on September 16: Weekly reflection 1 due. Email to the instructor.

For September 17 class:

analytic_frameworkRead Tozer, Ch. 1.




Read Hansen, "Teaching and the Moral Life of Classrooms."


By midnight on September 23: Weekly reflection 2 due. Email to the instructor.

For September 24 class:


Read: Tozer Ch. 2.

Watch Chimamanda Adichie video.

By midnight on September 30: Weekly reflection 3 due. Email to the instructor.

For October 1 class:

Read: Tozer, Ch. 3.

Read the piece by Orestes Brownson at the end of Tozer, chapter 3.

By midnight on October 7: Weekly reflection 4 due.

For October 8 class:


Read: Tozer, Ch 4. See also additional resources on Washington/Dubois debate.



Read: Kozol, Shame of the Nation (Introduction).




Optional: Read this critique of the so-called social justice agenda of Jonathan Kozol (and Williams Ayers) and, allegedly, American colleges of education. You are welcome to incorporate ideas or resources you find there into class discussions and your weekly reflections.

   By Midnight on October 14: Weekly Reflection 5 due.

For October 15 class:


Read: Tozer, Ch 5 and watch this video on John Dewey.



Read: Anyon, “Hidden Curriculum."


By midnight, October 21: Weekly reflection 6 and Draft of Philosophy Statement due. Email to the instructor.

Week leading up to October 22 class.

willardRead:  Tozer, Chs 6 and 8. Reread Chapter 5 (and Lipman and video below).







lipmanRead Lipman, "Chicago School Reform" and watch the video "A Radical Fix for Schools."



By Midnight on October 28 : Weekly Reflection 7 due

Week leading up to October 29 class.

coldwarRead Tozer, Ch. 7 and 9. Read chapter 7 and either chapter 6 or 8, and review the Dewey excerpt at the end of chapter 5.


Due by midnight, November 4: Weekly reflection 8. Email to the instructor.

Week leading up to November 5 class.

Read: Tozer, chapters 9 and 11; 10 is optional. Tozer, Ch. 11 and 12. Tozer Chapter 13 is optional but recommended.

Read Schools Betrayed (Neckerman).

By midnight on November 11 : Weekly reflection 9. Email to the instructor.

Week leading up to November 12 class. Poster presentations in class.

diversityRead: Tozer chapters 12 and 14. Tozer, Ch. 14. (If you have the 5th edition, read chapter 15 for this assignment.)

Watch this video of Blackstar performing Respiration (ft. Common).


By midnight on November 18: Weekly reflection 10 and and Field project paper emailed to instructor.


Supporting Resources

Major secondary texts

Noddings, N. (1995). Philosophy of education. Boulder: Westview Press.

Reed, R. F, & Johnson, T. W. (2000). Philosophical documents in education (2nd ed.). New York: Longman

Rippa, S.A. (1997). Education in a free society: An American history (8th ed.). New York: Longman.

Rury, J. (2002). Educational and social change: Themes in the history of American schooling. Manwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Spring, J. (2001). The American school 1642-2000 (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Spring, J. (2001). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality: A brief history of the education of dominated cultures in the United States (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Tozer, S., Violas, P., & Senese, G. (2003). School and society: Historical and contemporary perspectives (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Tyack, D. (1974). The one best system. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Urban W., & Wagoner, J. (2000). American education: A history. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Winzer, M. (1993). The history of special education: From isolation to integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Other texts

Adams, D. W. (1995). Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Allen, J. (1996). Foucault and special education needs: A "box of tools" for analyzing children's experiences of mainstreaming. Disability and Society 11(2). 219-233.

American Association of University Women. (1998). Gender gaps: Where schools still fail our children. Washington, DC: Author.

American Association of University Women. (1998). Separated by sex: A critical look at single-sex education for girls. Washington, DC: Author.

Appiah, K. A., & Gutmann, A. (1996). Color conscious: The political morality of race. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Apple, M. W. (1996). Cultural politics. New York: Teachers College Press.

Apple, M. W., & Beane, J. A. (1995). Democratic schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Aristotle. (1976). The ethics of Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. (J.A.K. Thomson, Trans.). New York: Penguin

Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ayers, W. C.& & Miller, J. L. (Eds). (1997). A light in dark times: Maxine Green and the unfinished conversation. New York: Teachers College Press.

Banks, J. A. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions and practice. In L. Darling-Hammond (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 19, pp.3-49). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education. New York: Macmillan.

Barber, B. R. (1992). An aristocracy of everyone: The politics of education and the future of America. New York: Ballantine Books.

Beare, H. (2001). Creating the future school: Student outcomes and the reform of education. New York: Routledge-Falmer.

Bernstein, R. J. (Ed.). (1960). John Dewey: On experience, nature, and freedom. New York: Library of Liberal Arts.

Beatty, B. (1995). Preschool education in America: The culture of young children from the Colonial era to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Berliner, D.C., & Biddle, B. J. (1995). The manufactured crisis: Myths, fraud, and the attack on public schools. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Biklen, S. K. (1995). School work: Gender and the cultural construction of teaching.New York: Teachers College Press.

Bizar, M., & Barr, R. (2000). School leadership in times of urban reform. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Bond, H. M. (1969). Negro education in Alabama. New York: Athenaeum.

Boyd, W. (1956). The Emile of Jean Jacques Rousseau: Selections translated and edited by William Boyd.New York: Teachers College Press.

Bowers, C.A. (1988). The cultural dimensions of educational computing: Understanding the non-neutrality of technology. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bracey, G. W. (1996). International comparisons and the condition of American education. Educational Researcher, 25, 5-11.

Braun, S. J., & Edwards, E. P. (1972). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Briggs, T. (1922). The junior high school. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Brighouse, H. (2000). School choice and social justice. New York: Oxford University Press

Brosio, R. A. (2000). Philosophical scaffolding for the construction of critical democratic education. New York: Peter Lang.

Bryan, M. L. Mc., & Davis, A. F. (Eds.). (1990). One hundred years at Hull-House.

Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S., & Easton, J. Q. (1998). Charting Chicago school reform: Democratic localism as a lever for Change. Boulder, Co.: Westview Press.

Coles, G. (1988). The Learning mystique: A critical look at “Learning Disabilities.” New York: Pantheon.

Cremin, L. A. (1988). American education: The metropolitan experience. New York: Harper and Row.

Cremin, L. A. (1977). Traditions of American education. New York: Basic Books.

Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.

Cuban, L. (1993). How teachers taught (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Curti, M. (1959). The social ideas of American educators. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co.

Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2000). Human diversity in education (3rd ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.

Danforth, S., & Rhodes, W. C. (1997). Deconstructing disability: A philosophy of inclusion. Remedial and Special Education 18(6), 357-366.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children. New York: New Press.

Demos, J. (1986). Past. present. and personal: The family and the life course in American history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Deutsch, A. (1949). The mentally ill in America: A history of their care and treatment from Colonial times (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Dewey, J. (1966). Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press.

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York: Collier Books.

Donato, R. (1997). The other struggle for equal schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights era. Buffalo: State University of New York Press.

DuBois, W.E.B. (1969). The souls of black folk. New York: Signet.

Engel, M. (2000). The struggle for control of public education: Market ideology vs. democratic values. Philiadelphia: Temple University Press.

Etzioni, A. (2001). The monochrome society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Festenstein, M. (1997). Pragmatism & political theory: From Dewey to Rory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fisher, L, Schimmel, D. & Kelly, C. (1999). Teachers and the law (5th ed.) New York: Longman

Fraser, J. W. (2001). The school in the United States : A documentary history. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury.

Freire, P. (1998). Teachers as cultural workers. Boulder, Co: Westview Press.

Fullan, M. G. (1993). Change forces. New York: Falmer Press.

Fullan, M. G. (1999) Change forces: The Sequel. New York: Falmer Press

Garcia, M. (1989). Mexican Americans: Leadership, ideology and identity. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Giroux, H. A. (2001). Public spaces, private lives. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Goodlad, J. (1983). A place called school. New York: McGraw Hill.

Graff, H. J. (1995). Conflicting paths: Growing up in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Greber, M. M. Postmodern in special education. The Journal of Special Education 28(3). 368-378.

Greene, M. (1973). Teacher as stranger. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.

Gutek, G. L. (1992). American education in a global society. New York: Longman.

Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing teachers, changing times: Teacher’s work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers College Press.

Harrison, E., & Woodson, B. (1903). The kindergarten building gifts. Chicago, IL: Sigma Publishing Company.

Hehir, T., & Latus, T. (1992). Special education at the century’s end: Evolution of theory and practice since 1970. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review.

Hess, G. A. Jr. (1995). Restructuring urban schools: A Chicago perspective. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hoffman, N. (1981). Women’s true profession: Voices from the history of teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jacoby, R., & Glauberman, N. (Eds.) (1995). The Bell Curve debate: History, documents, opinions. New York: Times Books.

Kaestle, C. (1983). Pillars of the republic. New York: Hill and Wang.

Kahne, J. (1996). Reframing educational policy: Democracy, community, and the individual. New York: Teachers College Press.

Kanigel, R. (1997). The one best way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the enigma of efficiency. New York: Viking.

Kantor, H., & Lowe, R. (1995). Class, race, and the emergence of federal education policy: From the New Deal to the Great Society. Educational Researcher 24, 4-11, 21.

Karp, S., Lowe, R., Miner, B., & Peterson, B. (1997). Funding for justice: Money, equity, and the future of public education. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools.

Karier, C. J. (1967). Man, society, and education: A history of American educational ideas. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

Katz, M. J. (1971). Class, bureaucracy, and schools: The illusion of educational change in America. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Katz, M. B. (1987). Reconstructing American educational history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kincheloe, J. L., Slattery, P., & Steinberg, S. R. (2000). Contextualizing teaching. New York: Longman. 

Kliebard, H. (1995). The struggle for the American curriculum: 1893-1958. New York: Routledge.

Kluger, R. (1975). Simple Justice. New York: Random House.

Knight, G. R. (1989). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (2nd ed.). Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.

Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities: Children in America’s schools. New York: Crown.

Kozol, J. (1995). Amazing grace. New York: Crown.

Kozol, J. (2000). Ordinary resurrections: Children in the years of hope. New York: Crown.

Krug, E. A. (1972). The shaping of the American high school, 1920-1941. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Levine, D., Lowe, R., Peterson, B., & Tenorio R. (1995). Rethinking schools: An agenda for change. New York: The New Press.

Lieberson, S. (1980). A Piece of the pie: Black and white immigrants since 1880. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lipman, P. (1998). Race, class, and power in school restructuring. New York: SUNY Press.

Lowe, R. (1996). Schooling & social change 1964-1990.New York: Routledge

Lowe, R., & Miner B., (Eds). (1996). Selling out our schools: Vouchers, markets, and the future of public education. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools.

Martusewicz, R. A., & Reynolds. (1994). Inside/Out: Contemporary critical perspectives in education. New York: St. Martin Press.

MacClellan, B. E. (1999). Moral Education in America: Schools and the shaping of character education form Colonial times to the present. New York: Teachers College Press.

Martin, J. R. (1985). Reclaiming the conversation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Martin, J. R. (1992). The schoolhouse: Rethinking schools for changing families. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

McLaren, P. (1994). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education. New York: Longman.

Meier, D. (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. New York: Beacon Press.

Moffett, J. (1994). The universal schoolhouse: Spiritual awakening through education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Moses, M. (2002). Embracing race: Why we need race-conscious education policy. New York: Teachers College Press.

Mungazi, D. A. (1999). The evolution of educational theory in the United States. London: Praeger.

Nash, G., Crabtree, C., & Dunn, R. E. (1997). History on trial: Culture wars and the teaching of the past. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Noddings, N. (2002). Educating moral people. New York: Teachers College Press.

Noll, J. W., & Kelly, S. P. (1970). Foundations of education in America: An anthology of major thoughts and significant actions. New York: Harper & Row.

Noonan, J. T., Jr. (1998). The lustre of our country: The American experience of religious freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Oakes, J. (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (1999). Teaching to change the world. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

O'Connell, B. (1999). Civil society: The underpinnings of American democracy. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

O’ Sullivan, E. (1999). Transforming learning: Educational vision for the 21st century. New York: Zed Books.

Ogbu, J. (1994). Racial stratification and education in the United States: Why inequality persists. Teachers College Record, 95 (1), 8-34.

Paciorek, K. M., & Munro, J. H. (1996). Sources: Notable selections in early childhood education. Guilford, CT: Dushkin

Pai, Y. & Adler, S. A. (2001). Cultural foundations of education. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Papert, S. (1993). The children’s machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York: Basic Books.

Paris, S. G., & Wellman, H. M. (1998). Global perspectives on education: Development, culture, and schooling. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Perlmann, J. (1988). Ethnic differences: Schooling and social structure among the Irish, Italians, Jews, and Blacks in an American City, 1880-1935. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Perry, T., & Fraser, J. W. (Eds.). (1993). Freedom’s plow: Teaching in the multicultural classroom. New York: Routledge.

Plato. (1945). The republic. New York: Oxford University Press.

Popkewitz, T. S., & Fendler, L. (Eds.) (1999). Critical theories in education: Changing terrains of knowledge and politics. New York: Routledge

Postman, Neil. (1996). The end of education: Redefining the value of school. New York: Vintage.

Ravitch, D. (1983). The troubled crusade. New York: Basic Books.

Ravitch, D., & Vinovskis, M.A. (Eds.). (1995). Learning from the past: What history teaches us about school reform. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Reese, W. J. (1995). The origins of the American high school. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Richardson, J.G. (1994). Common, delinquent, and special: On the formalization of common schooling in American States. American Educational Research Journal 31(4), 695-723.

Rippa, A. (1997). Education in a free society: An American history (8th ed.). New York: Longman. 

Rorty, R. (1989). Contingency, irony and solidarity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rose, M. (1995). Possible lives: The promise of public education in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rothman, R. (1995). Measuring up: Standards, assessment, and school reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rousmaniere, K. (1997). City teachers: Teaching and school reform in historical perspective. New York:Teachers College Press.

Ryan, A. (1995). John Dewey and the high tide of American Liberalism. New York: W.W. Norton.

Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. (1994). Failing at fairness: How America’s schools cheat girls. New York: MacMillan.

Schlesinger, A. M., Jr. (1992). The disuniting of America: Reflections on a multicultural society. New York: W.W. Norton.

Seidman, S., & Alexander, J. (Eds.). (2001). The new social theory reader. New York: Routledge.

Shapiro, H. S., & Purpel, D. E. (Eds.). (1993). Critical social issues in American education. New York, Longman.

Sigler, J.A. (1998). Civil rights in America: 1500 to the present. Detroit: Gale Research.

Sizer, T. R. (1996). Horace’s hope: What works for the American high school. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Spring, J. (1972). Education and the rise of the corporate state. Boston: Beacon Press.

Spring, J. (1998). Wheels in the head: Educational philosophies of authority, freedom, and culture from Socrates to human rights. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stone, C., Henig, J., Jones, B, & Pierannunzi, C. (2001). Building civic capacity: The politics of reforming urban schools. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.

Taylor, S. Rizvi, F. Lingard, B., & Henry, M. (1997). Educational policy and the politics of change. New York: Routledge.

Teitelbaum, K. (1993). Schooling for “good rebels”: Socialism, American education, and the search for radical curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.

Torres, C. (1998). Democracy, education and multiculturalism: Dilemmas of citizenship in a global world. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Trent, J. W. (1994). Inventing the feeble mind: A history of mental retardation in the United States. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Tyack, D. (1993). Constructing difference: Historical reflections on school and social diversity. Teachers College Record, 95 (1), 8-34.

Tyack, D., & Lowe, R.(1986). The constitutional moment: Reconstruction and black education in the South. American Journal of Education 94, 236-256.

Tyack, D., & Cuban L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Warren, D. (1989). American teachers: Histories of a profession at work. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Washington, B. T. (1903) The Fruits of industrial training. Atlantic Monthly, 92, 453-462.

West, C. (1993). Race Matters. New York: Vintage Books

Westbrook, R. (1991). John Dewey and American Democracy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Wink, J. (2000) Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.

Winzer, M. A. (1993). The history of special education: From isolation to integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Weber, E. (1969). The kindergarten: Its encounter with educational thought in America. New York: Teachers College Press.

Young, P., & Adler, S. A. (2001). Cultural Foundations of Education. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall

Young, J. P. (2000). Inclusion and democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zigler, E., & Hall, (1986) Mainstreaming and the philosophy of normalization. In C.J. Meisel Mainstreaming handicapped children, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zilversmit, A. (1993). Changing schools: Progressive education theory and practice, 1930-1960. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Center for Investigative Reporting & Telesis Production (1998) School colors. Insight Media.

School: The story of American public education. (2001). Films for Humanity

Simpson, D., & Bruckheimer, J. (Producers). (1995). Dangerous Minds. Hollywood Pictures.

Wiseman, F. (Director and Producer). (1994). High School II. Cambridge, Mass: Zipporah Films.

Videos at NLU

National-Louis University (http://www3.nl.edu) – Library – Media Services – Media Catalogue

TVC636, The Evolution of the Textbook

TVC 667, Teaching Democracy in Eastern Europe

TVC 452, Women of Hull House

TVC 35, What Are Schools For?


http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/ (Eugenics movement)

http://www.loc.gov/ (Library of Congress. Everything you ever wanted to know about the history and philosophy of education)

http://www.ffhs.co.uk/genfair/system/index.html (Family History Books)

http://www.sru.edu/depts/scc/hes/hes.htm (History of Education Society -Publications, conference information)

http://www.booktv.org (History on Book TV) (Pulitzer Prize Winners for History, enactments of historical events, resources for teachers)

http://www.3uakron.edu/aesa/ (American Educational Studies Association – publications, newsletter, conference information)

http://www.apa.udel.edu/apa/ (American Philosophical Association - publications, conference information)

http://www.pbs.org/ (Public Television: Programs on education, videos, slides and other resources)

http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org/facts/pubs.html (Juvenile Delinquency – U.S. Department of Justice)

http://nces.ed.gov/ (National Center for Education Statistics)

http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html (Great Statistics Website)


Disability Websites:=

http://www.disabilityresources.org/ (legal rights, financial resources, assistive technology, and transportation)

http://www.disabilityresources.org/IEP.html (help for writing an IEP)

http://www.dredf.org (Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund – DREDF) A national law and policy center dedicated to protecting and advancing the civil rights of people with disabilities including the training of advocates, parents, and persons with disabilities)

http://www.disabilityhistory.org/dshp.html (Disability Social History Project - Information about the history of people with disabilities and special education)

http://www.mnddc.org/parallels/menu.html (Parallels in Time - An interactive history of social practices toward individuals with disabilities)

http://www.reedmartin.com/rightsalternotice.html (Reed Martin Special Education Law)

http://www.edlaw.net/ (ED LAW – Discussions and links to IDEA, Section 504, ADA, and court cases)

http://www.ideapractices.org (IDEA practices; information on laws, professional development opportunities, resources, news and links)

http://pages.cthome.net/cbristol/capd-law.html (Special Education Advocate - A parent-friendly site on laws and advocacy)

http://www.cec.sped.org/bk/cectoday/index.html (CEC Today online - Provides the latest news regarding special education)

Professional Journals

Teaching philosophy - American Philosophical Society. 

Educational Studies - American Educational Studies Association,

Educational Foundations - American Educational Studies Association

Exceptional Children – Council for Exceptional Children

Discourse: An Interdisciplinary Philosophical Journal of the University of San Francisco

History of education quarterly - History of Education Society

The Journal of Special Education

Teaching Exceptional Children (TEC) – Council for Exceptional Children

Professional Associations

American Educational Research Association – Division F: History and Historiography

American Educational Studies Association

Association for Philosophy of Education

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

Council for Social Foundations of Education

History of Education Society

The John Dewey Society

Philosophy of Education Society

Society for the Philosophy and History of Education

Relevant Illinois Professional Teaching Standards

ISBE 3A: understands the areas of exceptionality in learning as defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the State Board’s rules for Special Education (23 III. Adm. Code 226)

ISBE: 3F: understands personal cultural perspectives and biases and their effects on one’s teaching.

ISBE: 5B: understands how individuals influence groups and how groups function in society.

ISBE 5F: knows applicable statutes, rules and regulations, procedural safeguards, and ethical considerations regarding planning and implementing behavioral change programs for individuals with disabilities. 

ISBE: 6B: understands principles and techniques, along with advantages and limitations associated with various instructional strategies.

ISBE 7C: understands the social, intellectual, and political implications of language use and how they influence meaning.

ISBE 8F: knows legal provisions, regulations, and guidelines regarding assessment (and inclusion in statewide assessments) of individuals with disabilities.

ISBE 9A: understands schools as organizations within the larger community context.

ISBE 9D: understands the collaborative process.

ISBE 9G: understands roles of individuals with disabilities, parents, teachers, and other school and community personnel in planning individualized education programs for students with disabilities.

ISBE 11B: understands how school systems are organized and operate

ISBE 11D: understands legal issues in education

ISBE 11E: understands the importance of active participation and leadership in professional organizations.

ISBE 17A: understands the unique characteristics of education as a profession and the considerations that apply to educators.